Carallia brachiata

c2(I) Taxonomy
Carallia brachiata (Loureiro) Merrill, Philipp. J. Sci. 15:249, 1920
Karalli (Tamil) – Indian medicinal plant name
The species epithet means ‘branching at right angles’.
brachiatus (Latin) – having decussate branches provided with arms [decussate: arranged along stem in pairs, with each pair at right angles to the pair above or below.

Class Equisetopsida C. Agardh; Subclass Rosanae Takht. Order Malpighiales; Family Rhizophoraceae (Red Mangrove); Tribe Gynotrocheae; Genus Carallia with 15 species (6)

A genus distributed in Malagasy, the Indo-Malayan region and north Australia (31). A genus of a great many locally distributed and poorly known species, it has only a few widespread species, Carallia brachiata being one especially. More than 50 names have been published under the genus Carallia, many regarded as synonyms of C. brachiata (16). The other species are confined to tropical Asia (27).

Bruguiera brachiata, Carallia scortechinii King (9), Carallia lanceaefolia Roxb. (31), Carralia lucida Roxb. (9), Carallia madagascariensis (DC.) Tul. Carallia sinensis Arnott (17), Carallia spinulosa, (1); Petalotoma brachiata (Loureiro) Candolle (17)

Diatoma brachiata Lour., Flora Cochinch.: 296(1790), Type: from Cochinchina (S. Vietnam); Carallia integerrima De Candolle., Prodromus 3:33(1828). Type: in Indie Orient. An forte C. lucida var? (v.s. comm. a cl. Lambert.); Carallia octopetala Benth., J. Proc. Linnaean Soc. Bot. 3:74(1859), Type? (8)

c1Common Names:
Corkwood, False Kelat, Bongbong, Gandang, Ganding, Janggut Keli, Kesinga, Merpoi, Merpuing, Tengkawa, Palamkat, Shengali, Andi (8), Punshi, Panasi (36).

Vernacular names by country: Australia: Billabong Tree, Caralla Wood, Freshwater Mangrove (2), Corky Bark (31); Brunei: Meransi, Sabar buku; Cambodia: Tra meng (15); China: 竹节树 zhujieshu (1), 鹅肾木 e’shenmu、山竹公 shanzhugong; India: Daini jam (Assamese), kierpa (Bengali, Hindi), Thekra aga (Garo) (26), Andipunar, Andamuria (24), Andhimaragala, Andimuriyana, Andi punaaru mara (26), Andam, Kathekera, Carallia, Karallia woo, Matiawya (Kannada) (36), Dieng-sohlangbali (Khasi) (26), Kara-kandel (‘mangrove seen on land’) (36), Vallabham, Valovam, Vankana, Varangu (24), Varanga (Malayalam) (10), Kamdelo, Ponsi, Phanshi (26), ‘Phanashi’ ‘फणशी’ or ‘Phanasi’ ‘फणसी’ (Marathi) (36), Theiria (Mizo) (26), Andimiriam (24), Karalli (Tamil) (9), Kaaralli, Kaarvalli, Gijuru chettu (Telugu) (26); Indonesia: Sepat (Javanese), Ringgit dareh (Kubunese, Sumatra), Kitamiyang (Sudanese); Laos: Bong nang, Halay, Koueum; Malaysia: Mesinga (Peninsular), Rabong, Radipah (Sarawaki); Myanmar: Maniawga-yat (15); Nepal: Kathe kera (17) Philippines: Bakawan-gubat (general), Anosep (Tagalog), Katolit (Iloko); Thailand: Chiang phra nang ae (general); Vietnam: Ma m[ax], S[aw]ng m[ar], Sen d[ow]; (15)

(II) Biogeography:

Native Distribution:
From Madagascar, the Mascarenes (17) to Tropical Asia (2) through India, east Nepal, south Bhutan (17), Sri Lanka (1), Andaman Islands (10), Myanmar , south China (1), Indo-China (2) [including Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand (17)], Southeast Asia [including Malaysia (13), Singapore (1)] to Malesia, N. Australia (2), New Guinea and Pacific Islands (17), Solomon Islands (1).

Local Conservation Status:
Native to Singapore, Endangered (EN)
Native to Western Australia, Not threatened (25)
Pacific Islands: Risk assessment score: 3; not primarily a threat at high elevations (29)
Could potentially be endangered on Sulawesi (29).

c3Plant records:
Singapore: It occurs locally in the Central Catchment Nature Reserve, Pulau Ubin (Chek Jawa), Pulau Tekong, and Cheang Hong Lim Street (lined with cultivated trees of Carallia brachiata ‘Honiara’) (1).

Western Australia records (25)
Australia: Cairns (14); Western Australia, Northern Territory, Cape York Peninsula, Northeast Queesland and southwards to coastal central Queensland (8). In Western Australia: Beard’s Provinces – Northern Province, IBRA Regions – Central Kimberley, Damperland, Northern Kimberley, Ord Victoria Plain, Victoria Bonaparte, IBRA Subregions – Berkeley, Hart, Mitchell, Ord, Ord-Victoria Plains P1, Pindaland, Victoria Bonaparte P1, IMCRA Regions – Kimberley, Local Government Areas (LGAs) – Broome, Derby-West Kimberley, Halls Creek, Wyndham-East Kimberley (25). See distribution map of Australian records at the Customary Medicinal Knowledgebase website.
China: Fujian, Guangdong, south Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan (17)

Hawaiian islands: O’ahu Island (29)

India: Tirupathi forest ranges, A.P. (22); throughout Western Ghats (24); Chandoli, Maharashtra (26); Phansad Forest (near Murud. Maharashtra) (30); Kerala and Deccan region (31).
Madagascar: Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Toamasina, la Reunion (possibly naturalized) (17)
Papua New Guinea: West Sepik, East Sepik, Madang, Morobe, Southern Highlands, Western, Gulf, Central, Northern, Milne Bay, Papuan Islands, New Britain, New Ireland, Manus & Bougainville (12).

(III) Description

Life Stage & Characteristics:
Plant shape: Rounded, oval
Maximum height: 50 m

c10Plant Morphology:
Growth Form: It is a shrub (15), or usually a small, medium (11) to fairly large (15) evergreen (9) tree with a single trunk (1), 10 m (2) up to 50 m tall, but in Singapore, it is usually only about 20 m tall (1). With wide spreading crown (13) and branches (11) usually horizontal (24).

Trunk: Bole straight (9), 15-30 m long, and cylindrical, 30 (12) -70 cm diameter (15). The maximum diameter is about 70 cm DBH (16), or 2 m in girth (22). Its bark is brown (1), gray (15), grayish-brown (9), reddish-brown or dark brown in colour (15). Its texture is smooth when young (24), flaky (9) or cork-like (23); finely cracking or shallowly to deeply fissured (15) or deeply-grooved (23); often hoop-marked (15), pale and corky particularly at the base of the stem (8). Later with large and corky lenticels (24). Lenticellate (15) or scaly-lenticellate (16) with lenticels irregular (12). With branchlet or leaf scars (9).

Stilt roots (Vinayaraj, Wikimedia Commons, CC-BY-SA-3.0)
Branches ascending-erect, slightly thickened at nodes (27). They are brown, corky (2). Ultimate branchlets slightly angular, glabrous, corky lenticellate (24). Twigs are conspicuously swollen at the nodes (1), terete (round in cross section), glabrous (smooth, hairless). Exudate absent (9) or if present, colourless, not readily flowing (spotty), colour changing on exposure to air, to brown or black, not sticky. Buttresses present up to 1 m high (15), or absent. Aerial roots and stilt roots sometimes (15) present (12) at the base. In swampy conditions, the trunk may be buttressed with fleshy (24) adventitious roots up to 1 m high (13).

Foliage: Leaves spaced along branches, paired (12), simple (9), opposite (2) decussate (24). Leaves stalked. Petioles 0.3-0.5 cm (24)/~ 1 cm (2) long, not winged, not swollen (12). Planoconvex in cross section, glabrous (24).

c11Leaves blades glabrous (smooth, hairless) (9), symmetric (12), margin entire or sometimes slightly toothed (27), to dentate or serrate (15), not dissected or lobed (12), revolute, coriaceous, glabrous beneath, drying brown (24). Papery, thinly leathery to leathery (1) with a waxy texture (23). The margin bears short regular teeth which are the best field character in quickly segregating the genus from other trees with simple opposite leaves (16).

Leaf shape usually oval or drop-shaped (1), elliptical, obovate (inversely ovate with attachment at the narrower end), oblanceolate (inversely lanceolate with attachment at the narrower end), or rarely suborbicular (almost circular in outline) (2). Broadest usually at or near middle, above middle, or occasionally below middle (12). Dimensions: 4-15(1)/16 by 2-10 cm (1).

Leaf base acute (9), cuneate (wedge-shaped, triangular and tapering to a point at the base) (2). Leaf tip rather sharp (1), apex acute to shortly acuminate (gradually tapering to a sharp point and forming concave sides along the tip) (2).
Leaf shape (

Blades are dark green above, and yellow green with brown (1) or black spots below (9) when dry (16). Scattered dark glands visible with a lens on the underside of the leaf blade if not visible to the naked eye (8).

Leaf venation (CSIRO)
Venation pinnate (12). Midrib canaliculate (with longitudinal channels or grooves) above (9). Secondary veins open, not prominent, but visible (12), obtuse (blunt or rounded at apex, with the sides coming together at the apex at an angle greater than 90 degrees), widely parallel (9). The main nerves number 6-10 (24)/8-12 pairs with fine veins more or less parallel (16). Tertiary veins absent (9) or obscure (24). Lateral veins forming loops (often a double series of loops) inside the blade margin (1). Intramarginal veins absent (12).

Stipules free, laterally placed (8), interpetiolar (15), not encircling the twig. Sheathing the terminal bud, each stipule is 10-15 (8)/25 (14) mm long (8), lanceolate (27) (lance-shaped (15)), gradually tapering to a point (8). Leafy, not fringed (12), large, cigar-like, twisted, often covered by resin (9). Caducous (falling off early compared to similar structures in other plants) (24), leaves an annular scar (9).

Inflorescences axillary (12), and develop from the angles of leaves (1), borne in small clusters on old wood (11). They are divided into two equal, or three branches, and 1-6 cm long (1); often resinous and usually shining from secreted resin (2). Its bisexual flowers (9) are stalkless [sessile], or shortly-stalked (1)/shortly pedicellate (2), 3-4 mm long (8) in a peduncled cyme (15). Each flower is subtended by (8) 2 or 3 brachteoles, partially connate (fused) into a cup (2). Flower regular (27) with many planes of symmetry, 4.0-6.0 mm long, diameter small, ca. 5 mm up to 10 mm diameter. Perianth present with distinct sepal and petal whorls (12). Calyx lobes 6 or 7 (8)/4-8 (15), deltoid (shaped like an equilateral triangle), 3-4 mm. Seven (8), or 5-8 free petals (12) about 1.5-2 cm long (8), clawed (15). Petals white, pale greenish (1), creamish green (9), or yellow with red or green base (12). Suborbiculate (almost circular), ~ 1.5 mm in diameter, apically emarginate (with a notch at the apex) and unevenly lacerate (cut or cleft irregularly as if torn) (2). Stamens are twice the number of petals (15), free of each other and of perianth. Number: 10-16 (12), usually 14 (8), of unequal length (12), ~ 2 mm (12). The disc is annular (15). Ovary inferior (12) or semi-inferior (15), bulbous, ~ 2 mm (2); style solitary (12), ~ 2 mm; stigma discoid, apically 4-8 lobed (2) or headed (15); carpels joined; locules 2 (12)/ 5-8, with 2 ovules in each cell (rarely 1-locular with 10-12 ovules) (15).

Infrutescence arranged on branched axis (12). Its fruits are small 1-celled pulpy berries (15)/drupes (24), round (globose or depressed globular) (8), glossy, 5 (2) -10 mm wide (9), 10 mm long, and ripen from pink to red (1)/orange to black (14). Not spiny, indehiscent (12) (not-splitting) (9). Fruit is crowned by floral remains (15) with calyx lobes persistent at the apex (8).

Their fleshy pulp contains 1 (13), 2 (9), 5 (15), or many (1)/10-20 (12) ellipsoid (15) or reniform (kidney-shaped) seeds (2) covered with an orange aril (9). Seeds about 1-5 mm long, not winged, narrow (longer than wide), less than 1 mm, ca. 0.5 mm diameter (12). Embryo +/- horseshoe-shaped in longitudinal section (8).

Seedling is with epigeal germination. The green cotyledons are leafy (15). The cotyledons are longer than wide, about 15-20 x 10-13 mm, margins inconspicuously toothed, lateral veins forming a double series of loops inside the margin. Stipules small and inconspicuous, less than 1 mm long (8). The hypocotyl is elongated (15), slightly winged just below the cotyledons (8). All leaves are arranged opposite (15). The first pair of leaves have regularly toothed margins. At the tenth leaf stage: the midrib is raised on the upper surface of the leaf blades and with the lateral veins forming loops inside the blade margin. The stipules are interpetiolar, triangular, about 5-7 mm long (8).

c14Similar to:
This species resembles the common kelat (Syzygium lineatum) owing to its oval or round crown (1). It can also be easily mistaken for a member of the coffee family because of the opposite leaves and the interpetiolar scars. The extremely pronounced green calyx reminiscent of a small Bruguiera along with the pronounced stipules indicates its affiliation with the Red Mangrove family (Rhizophoraceae). Also the leaves have the rather typical scattered dark spots seen in species of Rhizophora and Bruguiera. It can consistently be recognized by the somewhat fleshy leaves with rather obscure venation, the pointed stipules, covering the new leaf buds and the light brown corky bark. The fruits are little edible berries which ripen red (28).

(IV) Anatomy

Subrhytidome (under-bark) green, less than 25 mm thick, 20.0. Bark blaze brownish (24) consisting of 1 layer, faintly to non-aromatic (8). [NB: A bark blaze is a spot made on trees by chipping off a piece of the bark, usually as a surveyor’s mark, from] The inner bark is striate, yellowish-brown to pinkish-brown (15). Outer blaze orange or brown (brownish orange), with stripes, granular with splinters; inner blaze orange or brown (brownish orange), with stripes, granular with splinters (12). Oak grain in the wood and a corresponding pattern in the inner blaze (8). The twigs are solid (15). Oak grain in the twigs (8).

The heartwood is yellowish brown to reddish brown and indistinctly to moderately distinctly demarcated from the paler sapwood (27). Creamy to yellow-brown sapwood with prominent rays (15). The grain is straight, interlocked or slightly wavy, texture coarse and uneven. The wood shows a conspicuous silver grain figure on radial surfaces (27).

(V) Ecology

Carallia brachiata is a common and widespread forest tree of the lower subcanopy (24) or main canopy (16). It grows scattered in lowland and hill/montane rain forests up to 1,800 m altitude. They are found in primary or less often secondary forest in mixed dipterocarp forest, freshwater swamp forest, kerangas and on hills and ridges, mostly on peat soils or podzolic soils (15), along forest edges and paths (17), especially along rivers (9), usually around freshwater streams (14), rarely in savannas (15). In Singapore, it is native to inland swamp forests (13) and grows in the landward edge of mangrove forest, and sandy beaches (1). In Australia, it is found from sea level to 500 m in well developed rain forest, dry rain forest, gallery forest, rain forest around swamps (8), coastal vine thickets, monsoon forests, sand dunes, extending to nearby islands (11). Grows well in open and wet localities, but it can also stand quite dry conditions. In China, in evergreen forests, thickets, swamps, near sea level to 900 m (29), found to be quite resistant to heavily polluted environments (27). Distributed throughout India up to 1,300 m and in tidal creeks of Andaman (22). In Madagascar occurs in humid evergreen forest from sea level to 1500 m altitude (27). In Papua New Guinea, they are frequent in woodlands that are subject to periodic flooding occurring on poorly drained flats mainly in the southwest, and throughout the country forms narrow bands around permanent swamp, lakes and lagoons that have a fluctuating water-table (29).

Humid, subhumid (17).
Tree density:
1.90 trees/hectare in Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India (29).
Sapling (JL)

Ecological interest
This species has an unusually wide ecological amplitude that includes the wet equatorial forests of Borneo, dry forests of mainland Southeast Asia and also the mountains of northeast Thailand as high as 1800 m. The individual populations differ in details of the leaves and fruit. It deserves much more study with regard to ecology (16).

Flowering: February to October (2); In Townsville, Australia – July to September or December to March (11), Western Australia – June to September (25); In China – winter-spring/August (17)
Fruiting: In China – spring-summer/February the year after flowering (17)

First seeds: 6-10 years (35)
Life span: over 20 years (35)

c4Associated fauna:
It is the preferred local food plant for caterpillars of the teak defoliator moth (Hyblaea puera), the adult of which lays its eggs singly near the veins, and on the underside of new leaf blades. Its flowers are insect-pollinated, and its red fruits are eaten by birds too (1). In Australia, it is the food tree of Torresian Imperial Pigeon (11). Palatable orange fruit will be ripening in October, to the satisfaction of many frugivorous birds (29). Highly favoured by tree-kangaroos, its trunk is a very good indicator of the presence of tree-kangaroos, as is its canopy, which is usually heavily defoliated (29).

Ant Polyrhachis bicolor with defensive posture nesting on C. brachiata.
Dysphania percota on Carallia brachiata leaf (Vinayaraj, Wikimedia Commons, CC-BY-SA-3.0)

Protected areas in Madagascar: Analamazaotra-Perinet, Manongarivo, Masoala. Important sites outside protected areas: Ile Set Marie (17).

(VI) Physiology

The embryo sustains metabolic activity throughout ontogeny but bursts the seed tissues shortly after dispersal. In natural populations, these seeds may germinate readily within the fruit or soon after dehiscence, and they do not persist in the soil seed bank. These types of embryos rapidly lose viability if they are dried or chilled; hence they are termed “recalcitrant” to storage (29).

Initial growth is slow and seedlings attain only up to 35 cm in height after 2 years and 2.5 m after 5 years. However, seedlings of columnar ornamental cultivars may reach 60 cm tall in 10 months. Growth is monopodial (27).

Trees flower and fruit abundantly in mast fruiting years, but individual trees may flower less profusely in other years as well. The fruits, having a pleasant, sweet-acid flavor, are attractive to birds, which disperse the seeds (27). Easily self-seeds in the garden (29).

By diverse insects: Chrysomelidae, Cantharidae, several families of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera (29).

Fire Response
Adult fire response: Resprouter (<30% mortality when subject to 100% leaf scorch)
Resprouting type: Basal (lignotuber) +/- epicormic (35)

(VII) Genetics
Chromosome number: 2n = 48, 112 (27)

(VIII) Molecular Biology
31 GenBank nucleotide sequences deposited at
Diglycosyl megastigmane (

(IX) Biochemistry
A new megastigmane diglycoside was isolated from the leaves of Carallia brachiata. The structure was determined by spectroscopic methods as 3-hydroxy-5, 6-epoxy-β-ionol-3-Ο-β-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranoside. Additionally, 29 known compounds consisting of two megastigmanes, one 1,2-dithiolane derivative, seven aromatic compounds, five condensed tannins, 12 flavonoids, and two glyceroglycolipids were isolated and identified (19).

(X) Evolution
Carallia brachiata is a member of the Rhizophoraceae family of mangroves bit one which is adapted to rainforest habitats. It has bird-dispersed fruits that are evolutionary precursors to viviparous fruits (29).

(XI) Ethnobotany

Cultivated specimen (

It is an excellent shade tree that grows to 5-20 m. This species is tolerant of strong winds (24). It requires full sun, and is tolerant of damp ground. It is a tree suitable for large gardens, roadsides, and parks (1). Will adapt to different climates (29).

May be propagated by seed or terminal branch cuttings. Seeds need to be germinated immediately as their viability decreases rapidly. In tropical Asia, fresh seeds have a viability of 45% to almost 100% within 1-3.5 months. Seedlings should also be planted in the nursery for two years, after which they may be transplanted to semi-shaded sites as they are sensitive to drought, and shade-tolerant (1). Planting in open sites is difficult. Trees coppice well and reproduce freely from root suckers. In India, techniques for rapid multiplication by terminal branch cuttings have been developed: they include treatment with a fungicide and growth hormones (27).

Hardiness Zones: 10-12 (2)

Genetic resources and breeding: Widely distributed but nowhere common (27).
Production & international trade: The trees usually are too scattered and too small to be of great importance for timber. Small amounts of timber are exported from Borneo and papua New Guinea (27).

Prospects: The supply of wood is small due to the scattered occurrence of the trees and their often small size. However, more research on the silvicultural aspects seems worthwhile as the wood is of good quality and utilitarian value. Ornamental cultivars are particularly suited to planting along roads and close to buildings, and deserve more attention. It may be useful for restoration of degraded localities because of its tolerance to pollution (27).

Ethnobotanical Uses:

Used as food (fruit & vegetable). Edible plant parts (edible fruits) (1). Wild indigenous Australian indigenous food: 100 g fruit contains 78.0 kJ/18.6 cal, 2.2 g protein, 1.1 g fat, carbohydrates/complex carbs 0.0 g, water content 77.2 ml, niacin (B3) eq. 0.4 mg, thiamin (B1)/riboflavin (B2) 0.0 mg (32). Leaves are used for the preparation of tea-like beverage and as fodder (31).

The leaves contain alkaloids (0.2% dry basis), the major being (+)-hygroline (8), C8H17NO, m.p. 29-31 degrees. Carallia is the only genus in the Rhizophoraceae to contain alkaloids. The alkaloids are absent from the bark but present in the leaves. (34)

They are used in the treatment of sapraemia (blood poisoning resulting from absorption of the toxins of putrefactive bacteria due to the microorganism in the bloodstream or by eating putrefied matter. From the FreeDictionary). The leaf material was also found to be active against some tumours [Collins et al. 1990 (8)]. The leaves and bark are used medicinally against itch and septic poisoning (1). In India, the bark has been traditionally used for treating itch, oral ulcers, stomatitis, and inflammation of the throat. In Indo-China, it is used for treating itch (22). The fruits are used medicinally to treat ulcers (13).

Ethyl acetate extracts of the bark were tested for hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen (paracetamol)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats at dose levels of 250 and 400 mg/kg body weight. It significantly lowered biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum bilirubin when compared with hepatic control, almost similar to that of standard silymarin. Methanol extract showed less significant activity (18).

The stem bark extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol showed significant wound healing activity when screened by excision and incision models in Wistar rats. The extracts revealed the presence of sterols or triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates, fixed oils and fats (20).

Antioxidant-guided separation of bark led to a new A-type trimeric proanthocyanidin named carallidin, along with mahuannin A and p-hydroxy benzoic acid. The structure of carallidin was fully characterized by interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical means. Carallidin and mahuannin A exhibited radical scavenging against DPPH and superoxide radical. In addition, carallidin and mahuannin A also inhibited xanthine oxidase (21).

Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of bark showed maximum inhibition of edema (75% and 67%, respectively) compared to the standard drug diclofenac sodium (70%) using the carragennan-induced paw edema acute inflammatory model in Wistar rats. Maximum inhibition was observed in the second phase, which is mainly due to release of prostaglandins. The possible anti-inflammatory effect may be due to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzyme which catalyzes the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxane from arachidonic acid. This may be due to the flavonoids present which have been reported to be phospholipase inhibitors and anti-inflammatory activity. Such activity supports the use of Carallia brachiata in traditional medicine to reduce inflammation (22),

Occasional timber species (12). The insect-resistant wood (13) is used for many construction purposes, house-building, posts (27), commercial plywood (31), furniture (such as cabinet work), interior finish (1), veneered panelling (13), parquet flooring, railway sleepers (27) and carriages (1), spear shafts (13), tool handles, picture frames, musical instruments, pallets and packing material (27), although it is difficult to season (9). Wood is dense but does not last long. Suitable for farming and woodwork tools (17). Due to its high energy value, the wood is also a source of good-quality firewood and charcoal (27), fuel (31).

Yields a medium-weight hardwood with a density of 710-755 kg/m^3 at 12% moisture content. The rates of shrinkage upon drying are low – ca. 0.8% radial and 3.9% tangential for wood of Australian origin. The wood seasons well, but end splitting and surface checking should be prevented by protecting the ends from rapid drying. It takes 2 months to air dry 13 mm thick boards and 5 months for 38 mm thick ones (27).

At 12% moisture content, the modulus of rupture is 117.5 N/mm^2, modulus of elasticity 13.855 N/mm^2 and compression parallel to grain 55.5 N/mm^2 for wood of Indian origin (27).

The wood is strong and easy to saw and plane, and it takes a good finish. Immediately after sawing the wood should be treated with anti-stain chemicals. To obtain the attractive silver grain, boards should be quarter-sawn, which limits their width to about 20 cm. The wood is durable under cover, but durability in contact with the ground or when exposed to the weather is moderate to poor. It is prone to termite and marine borer attack, whereas the absorption of preservatives is moderate (95-130 kg/m^3). The sapwood is susceptible to Lyctus attack (27).

Bark yields tannin used for tanning or dyeing purposes (31)

The tree is planted as an ornamental, especially a cultivar with a narrow columnar habit and pendulous branches (‘Honiara’), e.g. along roads in the Solomon Islands (27). Introduced to Singapore from the Solomon Islands in 1986, it is the weeping form of a widespread forest tree. Not quite as narrow or regular, it has a certain grace to its weeping branches and provides a much-needed softening touch when planted next to high-rise buildings (29).

Landscaping Features
Landscape Uses: Roadside tree, coastal (1). Less commonly planted in Singapore than the ‘Honiara’ cultivar.
Plant Care & Propagation
Light Preference: Full sun
Water Preference: Moderate water (1), resistant to salt spray (11)
Soil Preference: sand, peat, loam (25); resistant to saline soils (11)
Propagation Method: Fresh seed (11), stem cutting (tip) (1)

Mature Foliage Colour(s): Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s): Leathery
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio: 4.0 (Tree – dense canopy)

Flower Colour(s): Green – light green, white
Fruit, Seed & Spore
Mature Fruit Colour(s): Pink, red